History, interesting facts and information on the army: Soldiers, Consuls, Centurion and Tribune, Ensigns, Flags, the Standard, Army Ranks Dictionary, Soldiers and the clothing, the Legion and Cohorts, army battle plans and formations.
For many centuries the Legions was composed exclusively of Roman citizens. Up to the year B.C. 107, no one was permitted to serve among the regular soldiers except those who were regarded as possessing a strong personal interest in the stability of the republic. The following list and links provide an index to the articles and contents of this category. Click a link for comprehensive facts and information and details relating to the Army:
The history, facts and information about the Roman Army including the history and numbers of soldiers in a Legion, or Legio. Read about a typical Order of Battle. The military science of the Army was far superior to a feudal army during the European Middle Ages. No armies ever won greater victories over superior numbers than the Roman Army, and no armies of their size ever retained in submission so vast an empire and for so long a time. The Praetorian Guard mirrored the structure and number of soldiers in a legion of the army - there were ten cohorts consisting of about 500 soldiers in each. The 'Praetorian Guard' originated from the 'Praetoria Cohors' who were the troops who guarded the Praetor and then the Consuls who served as commanders in a military capacity.
Roman Army Ensigns, Flags and Standard
The Purpose of the Standard displayed by the legionaries and the armies of Rome, the different types of Standard and their History with meaning of SPQR standard and the other different standards, flags and ensigns. The Manus was the open hand at the top of the maniple standard, the Vexillum (vexilla) was a small rectangular flag attached vertically to a cross-bar carried on a pole, the Aquila was the eagle standard which was the supreme symbol because of its association with the god Jupiter, the Draco was the cavalry standard of each cohort flown like a modern wind sock and the Imago which represented a likeness of the Emperor. All standard bearers wore animal skins (usually bear or wolf) over their uniforms and helmets - the Aquilifer, the Signifier, the Draconarius and the Imaginifer together with the trumpeters and horn blowers.
Roman Army Ranks Dictionary
The Roman army consisted of troops of all arms, infantry, cavalry, and, when military engines were extensively employed they were also experts in artillery. This section outlines the basic hierarchy of the Army ranks together with an A-Z dictionary of the names and descriptions of the different army ranks.
Army - The Roman Legion
The number of soldiers in a Legion changed over the years but it rarely exceeded six thousand men. What was a Legion like? How many men made up a Legion and how did a Legion operate? The History of the Legion. The Standing Army and the number of Legions. Who was allowed to serve in a Legion? The Number of Soldiers in a Legion. The Infantry, Cavalry and the Artillery. Learn about the general and consul Gaius Marius (157 BC–January 13, 86 BC) and his dramatic changes and reforms to the Roman armies.
Army - The Roman Cohorts
The Cohorts were arranged in battle so that the experienced, inexperienced, strongest and weakest soldiers would be mixed throughout the battle formations which maximized moral and military effectiveness. There were 10 cohorts in a legion. Each of the 10 cohorts were numbered and consisted of specific types of soldiers. The organisation and numbering of the Cohorts were the same throughout the different legions.
Roman Army Formations
The Roman Army Formations - Holding the Lines. The Strategy, Tactics and Order of Battle which made up the Roman Army Formations. The Strategy, Tactics and Fighting Formations according to Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus who was a writer of the late Roman Empire and the author of De Re Militari (Concerning Military Matters).
Roman Army - The Soldiers
Facts and information about the life, training and role of the soldiers. Their life in the Legions, their clothing and armor. The severity of military discipline was never relaxed. Military exercises were incessant, in winter as in summer. In the times of peace the troops were familiarized with the practice of war. The soldiers Glory and Honor rewards, promotion and punishments such as Decimation.
Roman Army - The Centurion
The history, facts and information about the Centurion and his role in the Roman Army. The Roman centurion was equivalent to a Captain in the Army. A centuria (Century) was commanded by a centurion and eventually consisted of 100 soldiers. Learn about the role of the Centurion in the Army, in the clothing of the Centurion and the significance of the Helmet and Crest of the Centurion.
Roman Army - The Military Tribune
The military tribunes were officers of the army of whom there were from four to six in each legion. Learn about the definition and origin of the Tribune (Tribunus), the Tribune Ranks and the clothing worn by the Military Tribune.
The history, facts and information about the Roman Navy including the naval life of the Romans. Descriptions and facts about the Ancient Ships used by the Romans called Triremes, Quinqueremes and the Dromons. The development of the Roman Navy and fleet. Their boarding techniques. The Romans believed that they could defeat the Carthage by their man to man fighting techniques and to take their ships by boarding.
Information and Facts about the Roman Army
Interesting facts and information on the army: Soldiers, Consuls, Centurion and Tribune, Ensigns, Flags, the Standard, Army Ranks Dictionary, Soldiers and the clothing, the Legion and Cohorts, army battle plans and formations.